From Silence to Sound-Part 3

Hank’s Emerging Story

Drumming Bridged the Gap to Blend Sounds into Words

“Reading” a simple written notation, Hank imitated fast versus slow beats on a drum after my modeling those rhythmic patterns. That method bridged the cognitive and auditory gap so he could comprehend the idea blending sounds in a sequential order. He was then able to “read” the mouth form cards representing specific sounds he could make, then imitate those sounds in a sequential order that created a specific noun. A picture and the written word representing the noun were introduced while I said the word slowly.

Hank had previously enjoyed playing a phoneme awareness game on the computer that required him to blend syllables and sounds together to represent a word pictured. This had previously been impossible, but he loved playing the game with someone giving him the answers. Now that game started making sense to him and he was able to accomplish the task with only minimum help. He also began trying to imitate the sounds he was hearing in the game.

Hank's "reading" simple rhythm patterns while listening to therapeutic music created a link in his understanding of sequencing verbal sounds into real words
Hank’s “reading” simple rhythm patterns while listening to therapeutic music created a link in his understanding of sequencing verbal sounds into real words

 

Following Verbal Computer Directions

Hank also loved playing the computer game, Hear Builder: Following Directions, which required identifying specific objects named and understanding basic language concepts (www.superduperinc.com). This game had been very challenging for Hank, but as he improved in his verbal imitation abilities he also improved in his following direction skills.

This was his favorite game at our last session. He required a written cue when a new concept was introduced to be successful at completing tasks requiring understanding of complex verbal commands. Each command must be visually and kinesthetically introduced before he comprehended the verbal signal. Usually he grasped the new concept in 2-3 trials. His mother used to sadly refer to him as her child with a “little brain.” She started realizing that Hank is quite bright with the right learning channel presented to him.

 

Separating Sounds to Approximate Words and Communicate Spontaneously

To my surprise Hank returned after a weekend spontaneously using the segmented sounds in a meaningful way to name the pictures we were paired with the question, “What is it?”  The auditory to verbal connection had been made and Hank wanted to learn to speak. He comprehended ideas faster after observing someone else performing the requested task even though it was a task he had experienced for numerous trials. On that basis, I quickly introduced him to Gemiini software videos as soon as they came out in Spring 2015. He began producing clearer long ‘a’ sounds when the videos were paired with separated static mouth forms, and pictures of words spoken (www.gemiini.org).

 

Blending Sounds to Create Clearer Words

Ten years old at this time, Hank’s verbal communication is just beginning to emerge. This is highly unusual for a non-verbal child this old to begin talking. He has just started synthesizing those segmented sounds together on some oft repeated words. His words are distorted and he has a flat robotic voice quality common to autistic children, but he is communicating and answering questions regarding preferences and requests appropriately. I am excited to be a part of Hank’s amazing journey from silence to sound. Addressing his auditory processing deficits has been a large part of this remarkable boy’s journey.

http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html

Hank’s story represents one child’s journey from silence to sound but it also embodies elements of numerous children who have been my teachers over the years. Hank’s story has been used with permission from his parents.

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From Silence to Sound-Part 2

Hank’s Continued Story

Neurofeedback Increased Alertness but Not Verbal Skills

He returned to see me after eighteen months with increased engagement in the treatment process, but he still could not imitate any sounds. Since he was now able to imitate specific static positions, I used these to activate certain areas of the brain to improve mirror neurons needed for speech imitation. Hank was now able to begin using the Interactive Metronome to increase neurological sequencing and timing with a focus on a predictable rhythm and imitating drum rhythms to tune into variable rhythms.  I have found rhythms are a key component to social engagement and often improve speech production. http://ctsdallas.com/Resources/RecommendedReading/RecommendedLinks.html See Autism Spot videos of Jane #3.

 

Hank Begins Communicating with iPad App

One day, mom reported that Hank had started making consonant sounds that he was using to gain her attention. He had also been taught to use an augmentative communication device at school. I recommended switching from the cumbersome one he had at school to the simpler and more compact iPad application that he could also use at home. He quickly learned that everything had a name and that naming things gave him power. He soon was able to create his own requests in sentences with picture cues on this device which increased his awareness and motivation to communicate with others.

 

Hank combines oral motor, basic concepts and multi-sensory strategies to elicit verbal communication
Hank combines oral motor, basic concepts and multi-sensory strategies to elicit verbal communication

Hank Starts to Vocalize Speech Sounds!

Each new skill brought Hank closer to verbal communication. After significant tactile cueing in one session, Hank was able to lower his tongue to make the first “speech-like” vowel sound he had ever produced. His focus on his mouth movements increased by watching my mouth comparing it to his mouth while making sounds looking into mirrors. He also looked at mouth forms and facial expression pictures and attempted to imitate the facial expressions. This was initially very challenging, but within two weeks he got better at the simpler expressions. The better he was at imitating facial expressions the better he became at imitating sounds both consonants and vowels, but he was still not combining them into words. Hank took another break from therapy due to personal reasons. When he returned 3 months later, he was using the consonant /m/ to gain his mother’s attention. He was shrieking the open vowel /u/ for random vocalizations but using the first speech sounding /a/ to specify specific object requests. He was now on the verge of being a verbal communicator.

From Silence to Sound

Non-verbal Ten Year Old Boy with Autism and Apraxia Gains Speech

Hank’s Story-Part 1

Autism and Verbal Apraxia Symptoms Treated from a Multi-Sensory Paradigm

Hank came to see me about the same time I was finishing therapy with Braden (https://janespeaksensory.wordpress.com/2015/06/29/effective-listening-to-improve-apraxia-of-speech/). I was feeling more confident with combining strategies to address more complex issues with suspected deficits in auditory processing.  Hank was autistic, mentally challenged, non-verbal, and severely apraxic. I was not sure how well he understood running speech, and I was suspicious that he might not have the cognitive abilities to engage in the treatment strategies. However, I saw a brightness in his eyes now and then, which encouraged me that it was worth a try. I used a multi-sensory approach involving movement, object and picture matching, tactile stimulation.

Referred to Physician for Inner Ear Evaluation

I referred Hank to a specialty M.D. physician who evaluated and treated underlying physical issues. He diagnosed Hank as having an inner ear virus and prescribed a protocol to address it. Hank made progress in gaining calmer focused attention, demonstrating that he had the capacity to understand and learn. I suspected his hearing and discrimination was quite compromised because of the inner ear virus being treated medically.

http://ctsdallas.com/Resources/RecommendedReading/RecommendedLinks.html   See Autism Spot Videos of Jane # 4 & 5.

Early Improvements

Tongue extension is an important oral motor step to lead to verbal expression
Tongue extension is an important oral motor step to lead to verbal expression

Hank loved playing therapeutic games on the computer and was good with those requiring visual reasoning and memory, but very poor with simpler games requiring listening skills. He was now able to blow devices and balloons independently with self- crimping, whereas producing an air stream on request from his mouth had been previously impossible. Hank was barely making any vocalization and his ability to imitate speech-like sounds was nonexistent even after several months of treatment.

Intensive Therapy with Multiple Sensory Inputs

Hank participated in a ten day program of intensive therapy using The Listening program and cognitive skill input. He began vocalizing but still was not using speech-like sounds. Following the ten-day program he began using The Listening Program with bone conduction equipment at home. His attention and focus continued to improve and he became more available to learn and be a part of his family and school community.  http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html

Hank could now sustain focus attention for task up to 5 minutes and was anticipating familiar routines. He was communicating non-verbally through gestures but no signs. He responded inconsistently to pictures which made augmentative communication a low priority at this time. Hank took a break from speech therapy to participate in sessions with a neurologist doing neuro-feedback.

Improved Listening Impacts Seizure-Induced Learning Disabilities

Carter’s Story

Nine year-old Carter participated in nine months of weekly language therapy using auditory processing and discrimination as the driving core. After being placed on medication to control a seizure disorder, he had been falling behind his private school classroom subjects across the board, and was demotivated and discouraged with low self-esteem. Testing at Center for Therapeutic Strategies showed he had deficits in both receptive and expressive oral language skills along with auditory processing and discrimination deficiencies. http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Evaluations.html

http://www.ctsdallas.com/Services/Evaluations.html

 

Carter used Interactive Metronome to improve his sequencing and timing by responding to a predictable beat
Carter used Interactive Metronome to improve his sequencing and timing by responding to a predictable beat

Listening Challenges Underlying Low Achievement

Carter participated in using the Interactive Metronome http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html to build sustained focus and attention and increased executive function skills for handling multiple inputs simultaneously. He listened to The Listening Program http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html in his sessions and later at home. He learned to discriminate sounds in words, segment sounds, and manipulate sounds in words for improved phonemic awareness. http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/ReadingisLanguage.html Carter improved his short term memory and decreased his impulsivity using the Brain Builder computer game by Advanced Brain Technology.

 

Academic Gains with Improved Language Processing Skills

After nine months of speech therapy with a focus on Reading is Language http://ctsdallas.com/Resources/RecommendedReading/CaseStudy-SensoryIntegrationDysfunctionUnderlyingMostLearningDisabilities.html and auditory processing skills, Carter was able to successfully transition from a small private school for children with learning disabilities to a large public middle school. His mother reported that his “Standardized testing recently administered show dramatic improvement in reading (90%ile), math (50%ile), and language arts/ spelling (30%ile).” She continued that he started The Listening Program at home three months later which brought “more changes in maturity and independence. He is now doing his homework independently and conscientiously. His emotional control has also greatly increased along with an increase in self-confidence, motivation, responsibility, and organization.”

http://ctsdallas.com/Resources/RecommendedReading/RecommendedLinks.html See Autism Spot videos by Jane Shook 4 & 5

Auditory Processing Underlies Academic Performance

Logan’s Story

Improved listening skills increases academic and social success
Improved listening skills increases academic and social success

 

Unsolicited Testimonial of Middle School Success

“Thank you Mrs. Shook! You are truly blessed with the gift of wisdom and discernment in working with learning differenced children and their families. You have literally changed and directed lives. I wish you could see Logan now!”

 

“Once Logan moved on to Middle School (three years ago) the teachers were dumbfounded mid-year when I told them we had battled learning differences in Lower School and I wanted to see what they observed so we could keep on top of things! Their comments are that he is such a conscientious student and quite the hard worker. If only they really knew how those characteristics were developed! His grades are mostly A’s and he earns them independently! His favorite pastime is reading! All his peers and teachers know that Logan is the reader! He always has a book handy and loves to talk about them! He can read a book faster than I can and enjoys every minute of it! He has excelled at writing, although the boyhood patience of proofing and re-writing is still battled at times.”

 

Reading is Language/ Language Depends on Listening Skills

“You were discerning to work on the root causes of Logan’s academic struggles and were able to combine the right therapies to treat the whole of Logan and not just symptoms of learning differences. If only we could clone you now so everyone had your understanding!

~~ Immeasurably Thankful,~~ Logan’s Mom”

http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/ReadingisLanguage.html

 

The Earlier Story: Reading Depends on Listening Skills

Logan was a bright six year-old boy who was failing reading, writing, and spelling in his private school kindergarten. The school recommended another well-known reading rehabilitation method, but the parents had a referral from a friend to see me. Logan had deficits in auditory-linguistic processing, phonemic awareness (sound-symbol correlation), short-term memory, auditory discrimination, and comprehension of instructions and short stories.

 

Auditory Processing Foundational to Phonemic Awareness

Logan used The Listening Program with air conduction headphones http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html    to establish his perception of patterns of the sound environment laying a foundation for improving his phonemic awareness essential to reading decoding. He played listening games that directly addressed his areas of weakness. He learned to isolate specific sounds in words, blending sounds together, and segment words in sentences and sounds in words. http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/ReadingisLanguage.html .

 

Effective Listening Foundational to Reading Comprehension

Logan also learned components of problem solving such as identifying the problem, cause-and-effect relationships and deductive reasoning so that he could draw conclusions and make predictions about short stories. He also learned to visualize directions, math word problems, and word pictures from stories to increase his comprehension. He learned to write short stories that were age appropriate verbalizations which described objects and events. http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/ReadingisLanguage.html .

 

Oral Language Depends on Listening

I previously had worked with reading issues separately from auditory processing issues underlying language development for many years. I began noticing that combining these issues improved school performance in most children struggling academically. These children tested as having minor language delays in addition to auditory processing deficits with the manifesting symptom of poor academic achievement.

 

 

Sensory motor movement is foundational to enable sequencing symbolic patterns for reading and writing
Sensory motor movement is foundational to enable sequencing symbolic patterns for reading and writing

Oral Language Success Brings Academic Success Long Term

Logan’s developing his auditory and linguistic processing allowed more effective oral language skills to emerge as well as his written language. These continue to develop on their own as described by the letter which I recently received from Logan’s mother updating his progress.

 

Self Esteem Success

“Logan’s self-esteem and self-confidence is high. He is a typical and fun-loving teen of almost 14 years in every way! Enough time has passed now that the nightmare of homework tears and school frustrations seem dream-like. The countless hours of therapy sessions seem condensed to a short time frame! Neither of which was fathomable at the time we lived through all that hard work!  But the icing on the cake is that Logan is a healthy, fun loving teen who developed great character qualities from his history with learning differences! Thanks to you Jane!”

 

***Logan’s Story is a composite of several children I have seen using this model. The mother’s testimonial is word for word from a letter I received about her specific child’s improvement.*** 

http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/ReadingisLanguage.html

Effective Listening to Improve Apraxia of Speech

Braden’s Story

Listening with movement and speech improved articulation
Listening with movement and speech improved articulation

Auditory Processing Impacts Oral-Motor Coordination

Braden had limited fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres, resulting in Childhood Verbal Apraxia and causing major disruptions in his ability to communicate verbally in spite of being a very bright child. Braden’s mom called me requesting I use the Interactive Metronome with her son to see if it would help his speech production. http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html

Childhood Verbal Apraxia

Childhood verbal apraxia is a complicated neurological motor planning disorder disrupting the individual’s ability to form sounds in words and words in sentences fluently on command/ request. It may be present with other language learning problems or it may be the only presenting condition. It often is accompanied by overall body coordination problems. It usually requires oral motor exercises along with significantly more repetition sounds to create words with a much greater time required to develop verbal expression. Speech may always difficult to produce across the life span and other means of communication may need to be utilized by some individuals.

Auditory Processing Underlying Childhood Verbal Apraxia

While it is not easy to diagnose auditory processing deficits with individuals having verbal apraxia because of their distorted speech, sometimes I have been able to utilize pointing to pictures as a way of determining word discrimination in quiet versus noisy environments. Disruptions in auditory processing and discrimination are frequent and usually severe with individuals having this condition. I had always addressed the speech production issues separately from the language issues with individuals presenting childhood verbal apraxia, which is the traditional way of treating verbal apraxia. Then Braden came to me and my paradigm shifted to use a multiple sensory approach.

 

Interactive Metronome Improved Movement, Listening and Verbal Skills

Braden came to me as a twelve year boy with overall motor coordination issues as well as verbal apraxia, sensory integration dysfunction, visual perceptual disorder and attention deficit disorder. When his mother called me requesting I use the Interactive Metronome, I had only received certification about five months before and had only used it with about 5-6 people. I was unsure whether it would make any difference in his performance, but she begged me to allow him to try it based on some research that she had found about using Interactive Metronome for speech production.

Communication Worsened Before it Improved

Braden went through a two week therapy intensive (ten sessions in two weeks) in December using just Interactive Metronome.  Four days into his treatment program his already limited speech became more challenging. He could no longer speak in 3-4 word sentences, but only 1-2 word combinations. I requested his mother call his neurologist who insisted we continue the program as “it was making changes” and he was “only clapping his hands and tapping his feet. Nothing he was doing could be harming him.” Sensory integration therapists often will comment that “you frequently get disorganization before you get reorganization.” That was just before the weekend break. Three days later when Braden returned for his next session on Monday, not only was he speaking in longer sentences, but his speech production was clearer! He continued to make progress in speech production for the remaining five days. His parents decided to continue ongoing therapy after the winter break to see if progress would continue.

 

Interactive Metronome used to improve sequencing and timing of movement to sound which increased verbal skills
Interactive Metronome used to improve sequencing and timing of movement to sound which increased verbal skills

Additional Therapy Targeted Multiple Sensory Systems

Braden received two weekly sessions of speech therapy for the next nine months which included tongue and lip exercises along with other traditional speech therapy for verbal apraxia. He also participated in activities targeting breathing, balance, movement for brain activation, CranioSacral Therapy, and auditory processing with a phonemic awareness and auditory discrimination emphasis http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/CranioSacralTherapy.html

 

Second Intensive Program Produced More Improvements

In July of the same year, Braden participated in another two week (ten sessions in two weeks) of intensive therapy, this time using both the Interactive Metronome and The Listening Program with bone conduction delivery. http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html Additional improvements were seen in Braden’s sentence length and complexity as well as his pronouncing multiple syllable words with greater ease.

Improvements in Academic Performance and Speech

Not a novice to treatment, Braden had received occupational therapy and speech therapy at his private school for learning disabilities for several years; however, as he addressed his underlying auditory processing and executive function deficits he saw dramatic improvements in his academic performance, his daily life and maturity as well as his speech. His mother reported in May of that same year, just prior the second therapy intensive a list of changes she had noticed. This information was collected on a solicited checklist I use to document progress:

  • Increase in eye contact
  • More emotional
  • More animated
  • More responsible
  • More independent
  • Decrease in frustration
  • Increase in sense of humor
  • Less restless
  • Increase in physical coordination
  • Increase in sense of rhythm
  • Less confusion of left and right on self
  • Change in sleep patterns
  • Increase in talking/ communication
  • Increase in vocabulary
  • Increase in phonological awareness
  • Increase in sentence structure
  • Increase initiating verbal participation
  • Increase in speaking quality
  • Increase in reading comprehension
  • Increase in ability to tell a story
  • Increase in on task performance

 

Improvements Seen in Numerous Areas

His mother noted in the comments section that Bradon’s language teacher at school “has started him on hard, more complex thinking stories. She didn’t know if he was ready, but to her surprise, he did great and was the best in the group.”

His mother further reported that he was able to do more complicated computer tasks at home and had been staying at home alone while his parents walk. He had always been too afraid to do that in the past. He had tried more new food lately as well. His mother also reported that his overall “level of understanding concepts has improved and he seems to have grown up in the past few months.” http://ctsdallas.com/Services/Therapies/IntensivePrograms.html

Effective Listening Impacts Self Calming and Social Skills

Peter’s Story

Peter calmly playing while listening to TLP
Peter calmly playing while listening to TLP

Peter was a three-year-old whose mom was exhausted and frazzled by his constant jumping and banging into her. Peter had auditory processing difficulties resulting in poor night’s sleep, days filled with crying, whining aggressive behavior toward siblings and peers, difficulty playing or relating appropriately with toys, and difficulty exhibiting empathy toward those closest to him when they were hurt. His language was precocious, but his self-control and relationship skills were immature. http://ctsdallas.com/Resources/Parents/UsingASensoryDiet.html

Mom’s Report after Ten Days of Intensive Listening Therapy

Her testimony says it all. “What a change two weeks of bone conduction has brought. Peter is happy and smiling. He cooperates, compromises, transitions well and obeys. No longer does he throw toys. He now plays appropriately with them. No longer does he hit his siblings and laugh; he now gives hugs and kisses. Before therapy, he shot around the house like a ball in a pin-ball machine. Now, he has purpose and direction. He plays, interacts, and converses in an orderly and appropriate manner. His favorite phrase is “Can I help you, Mommy?” and he really does do what I suggest. I would never have let the “old Peter” set the dinner table. We would have had water on the floor and forks stuck in the wall. Now this is fun Mommy/ Peter time. He takes direction, and seeks to please rather than taking delight in wreaking havoc. In addition to his beautiful daytime behavior, his sleeping has improved 100%. He goes to sleep without crying, stays asleep and wakes up happy”.

Effective Listening Impact on Self Regulation

Auditory processing is foundational to success and ease in so many areas of life. People who have mild to moderate difficulty understanding in challenging environments become inordinately tired, working hard to make sense of their world. Highly intelligent individuals with moderately severe to profound issues in auditory processing are inexplicably challenged in noisy environments. They are prone to depression, anxiety, and irritability in addition to having difficulty following multiple step directions and not completing work they easily can do in a quiet environment. They may avoid noisy environments unless they are creating the noise. They frequently are very controlling and manipulating to keep their environment as comfortable as possible. While ineffective listening may impair language development, it sometimes simply creates stress so the person, like Peter, is determined to be in control and have wild mood swings.

 

Effective Listening Problem/ Not a Parenting Problem

Peter’s mom was an experienced and skillful mother of four. In spite of using her best parenting skills, she had a child she couldn’t control and sadly couldn’t enjoy. As he entered his toddler years he became increasingly unhappy. He approached toys not as playthings but as objects to break, stomp on or throw. He became aggressive toward his siblings, then his friends at school. To sum it up in mom’s words, “much more was going wrong than right.”

Her conclusion following using The Listening Program with bone conduction equipment for two consecutive weeks was, “The end result of all this change is we are all enjoying Peter so much. We look forward to spending time with him instead of away from him. He is the fun, loving engaging child that we just knew he could be.” http://ctsdallas.com/Resources/Parents/UsingASensoryDiet.html

Early Beginnings and Foundations

kids banner2My introduction to speech pathology began with a visit from a family friend when I was a junior in college. I heard about a new academic field where educators were addressing individuals who learned differently from the traditional academic model and usually had difficulty with focus and attention. Physicians and educators could not determine a physical cause. This group of people are now referred to as having “Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder” with another group labeled as having “Sensory Integration Dysfunction” (now termed “Sensory Processing Disorder”). I was fascinated by the exercises that were being implemented to get the brain “talking to itself” using stimulation of movement, touch, vision, and hearing. 

At the time I was in Speech, Drama, and Debate with a minor in biology, and was trying to figure out how those very disparate areas could merge into a vocation. When I spoke with my current Dean about my interest in this new teaching avenue, he directed me to enter the field of speech pathology within the same Department of Communication.

Making learning fun at preschool Camp Connections
Making learning fun at preschool Camp Connections

Click here to see my website and like my FaceBook page.

I found Speech Pathology perfectly combined my divergent interests in science (biology) and performing arts/ humanities (speech and drama). From my first class in Speech Therapy  I would get chill bumps from the information I was learning about the brain and communication processes. However, when it came to clinical practicum which involved mostly children, I was out of my element. I had not baby- sat for other families nor been around young children. I felt inadequate, so I developed a practice of praying to center myself and connect to God to teach me the people skills I felt lacking. That spiritual practice, begun in graduate school, connected me to focus on other people’s needs and what I had to offer them. This change in perspective gave me confidence to show up as a teacher and therapist. I also found I could use my performing skills to role play and have fun, which made learning happen more organically. I adopted the motto at that time that “A wise teacher makes learning fun!”  I have maintained both of those perspectives throughout my whole career.

A Not So Traditional Speech Therapist

Jane teaches sound awareness on a therapy ball
Jane teaches sound awareness on a therapy ball

I am Jane Shook, clinical director and owner of Center for Therapeutic Strategies, a speech therapy practice in Dallas, Texas. I serve individuals with communication and processing challenges using innovative, cutting edge strategies that increase brain performance so areas of weakness can emerge with less effort. I work with children, teens, and adults with sensory processing and executive function issues. I also offer a mentoring service for SLP’s, SLP-A’s and SLP students who wish to gain understanding in using a multi-sensory model in speech therapy sessions.

Click here to see my website and like my FaceBook page.

I offer traditional speech therapy for all communication disorders using not so traditional sensory strategies. This helps people use their strengths to improve their weaknesses. I use activities and exercises designed to increase calm, focused attention, looking and listening accuracy/ discrimination and the ability to effectively and confidently perform multiple tasks at the same time.

What are those “not so traditional sensory strategies?” I will be explaining that on this blog by using the stories of the individuals I learned from. The people I have worked with have been my teachers. It has been in searching for answers to help increase skills when traditional methods proved ineffective, that I learned new approaches.

I specialize in serving individuals with *phonological impairments * apraxia * auditory language processing * autism spectrum * developmental delays * verbal apraxia * learning disabilities * fluency and * feeding/ swallowing disorders.

On this site I will be reminiscing about the people and life events that have led me to incorporate these innovative strategies in my practice.

**All names that appear in my blog articles have been changed to protect the privacy of my clients**